Intinya etika ini sangat penting untuk kehidupan bersosialisasi, aplagi untuk hubungan bisnis etika sangat dibutuhkan untuk menghadapi para klien yang berbeda watak serta sifat. Etika bisnis paling gampang diterapkan di perusahaan sendiri. Pemimpin perusahaan memulai langkah ini karena mereka menjadi panutan bagi karyawannya. Selain itu, etika bisnis harus dilaksanakan secara transparan. Pemimpin perusahaan seyogyanya bisa memisahkan perusahaan dengan milik sendiri. Dalam operasinya, perusahaan mengikuti aturan berdagang yang diatur oleh tata cara undang-undang. Etika bisnis tidak akan dilanggar jika ada aturan dan sanksi. Kalau semua tingkah laku salah dibiarkan, maka lama kelamaan akan menjadi kebiasaan., Norma yang salah ini akan menjadi budaya. Oleh karena itu bila ada yang melanggar aturan diberikan sanksi untuk memberi pelajaran kepada yang bersangkutan. Ada tiga sasaran dan ruang lingkup pokok etika bisnis. Pertama, etika bisnis sebagai etika profesi membahas berbagai prinsip, kondisi, dan masalah yang terkait dengan praktek bisnis yang baik dan etis. Dengan kata lain, etika bisnis pertama-tama bertujuan untuk menghimbau para pelaku bisnis untuk menjalankan bisnis secara baik dan etis
Kedua, menyadarkan masyarakat, khususnya konsumen, buruh, atau karyawan dan masyarakatluas pemilik aset umum semacam lingkungan hidup, akan hak dan kepentingan mereka yang tidak boleh dilanggar oleh praktik bisnis siapapun juga. Pada tingkat ini, etika bisnis berfungsi menggugah masyarakat bertindak menuntut para pelaku bisnis untuk berbisnis secara baik demi terjaminnya hak dan kepentingan masyarakat tersebut.
Ketiga, etika bisnis juga berbicara mengenai sistem ekonomi yang sangat menentukan etis tidaknya suatu praktek bisnis. Dalam hal ini, etika bisnis lebih bersifat makro atau lebih tepat disebut etika ekonomi. Dalam lingkup makro semacam ini, etika bisnis bicara soal monopoli, oligopoli, kolusi, dan praktik semacamnya yang akan sangat mempengaruhi, tidak saja sehat tidaknya suatu ekonomi, melainkan juga baik tidaknya praktik bisnis dalam sebuah negara.
Dalam upaya untuk menciptakan etika bisnis, ada beberapa hal yang perlu diperhatikan, antara lain yaitu
1. Pengendalian diri
2. Pengembangan tanggung jawab sosial
3. Mempertahankan jati diri
4. Menciptakan persaingan yang sehat
5. Menerapkan konsep “pembangunan berkelanjutan”
6. Menghindari sifat 5K (Katabelece, Kongkalikong, Koneksi, Kolusi dan Komisi)
7. Mampu menyatakan yang benar itu benar
Nama kelompok :
· Godlif Saputro 23210029
· Muhammad Ali Rafsanjani 24210630
· Novianto Pratama 25210020
· Riko Hanjaya 25210958
· Sicilia Indriyani 29210429
· Yandra Pratama 28210590
>Riko Hanjaya (25210958)
>Sicilia Indriyani (29210429)
The Computer-Based TOEFL (CBT)
When you take the computer-based TOEFL (TOEFL CBT) you will first read a seven-step tutorial teaching you the computer skills necessary for taking the test. For reading the tutorial you have as much time as you want because it is not part of the test itself. The tutorial will teach you such things as how to use a mouse, how to scroll down a page and click on icons. All four sections of the TOEFL test (Listening, Structure, Reading and Writing) are covered in the tutorial so you when you have finished studying the information you will be well prepared the test.
The format of the computer-based TOEFL (CBT TOEFL) test is as follows:
You start by reading the tutorials for which you have unlimited time. Then you take the Listening Section, which lasts between 40 and 60 minutes and you will answer between 30 and 50 questions. After the Listening Section you move on to the section called “Structure”. This part takes between 15 and 20 minutes and there will be between 20 and 25 questions. After you have finished the Structure Section there is a short break of 5 minutes and then you start the Reading Section which takes 70 to 90 minutes and includes 44 to 55 questions. The last part of the TOEFL CBT is the Writing Section. Here you will be given one topic on which you have to write an essay within 30 minutes.
The Listening Section of the TOEFL test is made up of three parts. In the first part you will hear short conversations usually containing two sentences which are followed by a single question. In the second part you will hear a longer dialogue between two people. After the dialogue you will hear four of five questions. Each of those questions is followed by four answers (A, B, C and D). Only one of those four answers is correct. You have to select the correct answer.
In the final part of the Listening Section you will hear longer pieces of spoken communication such as lectures, radio talks, TV announcements or other broadcasts. Each of those talks lasts between one to two minutes and it is delivered by a single speaker. After every piece of information you have listened to, you must answer four to five questions.
In the Structure Section you have to demonstrate your knowledge and skills in vocabulary, grammar and proper usage of standard North American written English. You will have to recognize vocabulary items of an academic nature, this means, there will be subjects related to science, the arts, literature, culture and history. To answer the questions correctly it will be sufficient if you have an average level of knowledge of those subjects.
- Reading Section
In the Reading Section you will find short passages similar to the sort of texts used for academic purposes in the US, Canada or other internationally recognized universities. For example there will be texts about the arts, literature, biography of important people, science and scientific research as well as history related to North America. Even if you know a lot about any of the subjects covered in the Reading Section of the TOEFL test, it will not necessarily be to your advantage in answering the questions correctly because the TOEFL measures your English language proficiency rather than your knowledge of a specific area. After all, you take the TOEFL test before you actually start your study program at university.
- Writing Section
In the Writing Section you have to compose an essay based on one single assigned topic. Your essay should include such elements as original thought, analysis, examples, evidence and organization in English. You can choose between composing your essay at a computer or using the traditional hand-written format.
TOEFL adalah penilaian kefasihan dalam bahasa Inggris diterima oleh lebih dari 6.000 lembaga. Banyak orang mungkin menganggap bahwa semua ini adalah di Amerika atau Inggris Raya, tetapi mereka sebenarnya tersebar di seluruh dunia di 110 negara. Hampir setiap universitas di negara-negara berbahasa Inggris utama seperti Amerika Serikat, Inggris, Australia, Kanada, dan Selandia Baru, gunakan nilai dari TOEFL untuk menentukan apakah atau tidak penutur non-bahasa Inggris dapat diterima pada program-program mereka, menerima beasiswa, atau masukkan lulus sekolah.
Manfaat lain dari TOEFL atas tes kemampuan berbahasa Inggris yang lain adalah pada kenyataan bahwa ada lebih dari 4.000 pusat tes dapat Anda gunakan. Jika Anda harus melakukan perjalanan, Anda akan menghemat waktu dan uang karena tes dapat diselesaikan dalam satu hari.
Tes ini awalnya dikembangkan di Pusat Linguistik Terapan dipimpin oleh ahli bahasa, Dr Charles A. Ferguson. Berbasis di Washington, DC, Pusat Linguistik Terapan (CAL) adalah sebuah organisasi nirlaba yang berkomitmen untuk meneliti hubungan antara bahasa dan budaya. Didirikan pada tahun 1959, direktur pertama adalah Charles A. Ferguson yang pernah diberikan program serupa di Timur Tengah di tahun 1921-1998 dan mengajar sebagai profesor di Universitas Harvard. Ferguson dipandu untuk dapat mengembangkan solusi praktis serta untuk dapat penerapan bahasa dan keprihatinan keaksaraan pemerintah internasional dan nasional.
Setelah mengikuti Tes TOEFL, peserta akan mendapatkan TOEFL Score.
Adapun kegunaan TOEFL Score adalah untuk:
- Mendaftar di Sekolah Menengah Atas (SMA) internasional
- Mendaftar di Perguruan Tinggi dalam dan luar negeri
- Mendapatkan Beasiswa sekolah atau perguruan tinggi internasional
- Melamar pekerjaan diperusahaan Swasta atau Negeri, didalam atau di luar negeri
- Kenaikan jabatan atau promosi bagi seseorang yang sudah bekerja
Souece : http://www.english-test.net
GRAMMAR ON TOEFL
Subject (S) + Verb (V) + Complement (C) + Modifier (M)
The subject is the agent of the sentence in the active voice; it is the person or thing that performs or is responsible for the action of the sentence, and usually located before the verb.
Examples of subjects :
She is not going to the office
The Departemnt Store open at ten o’clock
I explain how to study English
The verb follows the subject in a declarative sentence; it generally shows the action of the sentence.
Examples of verbs :
She will go to Bali next week
My sister is very clever
I am learning english
A complement completes the verb. It is similar to the subject. A complement answers the question what? Or whom?.
Examples of complements :
>Nick was driving a new car > (what was Nick driving? -> a new car)
> Sarijon bought a cake yesterday > (What did Sarijon buy yesterday? –> a cake)
>He saw Tony at the movie > (Whom did he see at the movie? –> Tony)
A modifier tells the time, place, or manner of the action.
Examples of modifier :
>Joe was swimming in the pool
>Where was Joe swimming? -> in the pool
>We ate dinner at seven o’clock
>When did we eat dinner? -> at seven o’clock
In grammar, tense is a category that locates a situation in time, to indicate when the situation takes place. Tense is the grammaticalisation of time reference, often using three basic categories of “before now”, i.e. the past; “now”, i.e. the present; and “after now”, i.e. the future. The “unmarked” reference for tense is the temporal distance from the time of utterance, the “here-and-now”, this being absolute-tense.
Relative-tense indicates temporal distance from a point of time established in the discourse that is not the present, i.e. reference to a point in the past or future, such as the future-in-future, or the future of the future (at some time in the future after the reference point, which is in the future) and future-in-past or future of the past (at some time after a point in the past, with the reference point being a point in the past).
Not all languages grammaticalise tense, and those that do differ in their grammaticalisation thereof. Languages without tense are called tenseless languages and include Burmese, Dyirbal and Chinese.
Not all grammaticalise the three-way system of past–present–future. For example, some two-tense languages such as English and Japanese express past and non-past, this latter covering both present and future in one verb form, whereas others such as Greenlandic and Quechua have future and non-future. Four-tense languages make finer distinctions either in the past (e.g. remote vs recent past), or the future (e.g. near vs remote future).
The six-tense language Kalaw Lagaw Ya of Australia has the remote past, the recent past, the today past, the present, the today/near future and the remote future. The differences between such finer distinctions are the distance on the timeline between the temporal reference points from the present.
Present Simple Tense
How do we make the Present Simple Tense?
How do we use the Present Simple Tense?
We use the present simple tense when:
>the action is general
>the action happens all the time, or habitually, in the past, present and future
>the action is not only happening now
>the statement is always true
Present Continuous Tense
The structure of the present continuous tense is:
Subject +auxiliary verb + main verb be base + ing
How do we use the Present Continuous Tense?
We use the present continuous tense to talk about:
>action happening now
>action in the future
Look at these examples:
John is learning to drive.
Present Perfect Tense
The structure of the present perfect tense is:
Subject + auxiliary verb + main verb have past participle
How do we use the Present Perfect Tense?
This tense is called the present perfect tense. There is always a connection with the past and with thepresent.
There are basically three uses for the present perfect tense:
Simple Past Tense
The simple past is used for a completed action that happened at one specific time in the past.
>Marry went to Deutch last year
>John washed the dishes after Lunch
Past Progressive (continuous)
Use of Past Progressive
a. Puts emphasis on the course of an action in the past
Example: She was playing doll.
b. Two actions happening at the same time (in the past)
Example: While he was preparing lunch, he was washing the dishes.
c. Action going on at a certain time in the past
Example: When I was having breakfast, the phone suddenly rang
Subject + [has/have] + [verb in past participle] …
>I have seen that movie twenty times.
>We have already written our reports
>Renny hasn’t called her parents yet
Present Perfect Progressive (continuous)
Subject + [has/have] + been + [verb+ing]
Use of Present Perfect Progressive
>She has been writing for two hours.
>I have been living here since 2001.
>I have been working all afternoon.
Subject + had + [verb in past participle]
>You had studied hard before you moved to New York.
>John went home after he had gone to the book store
Past Perfect Progressive (continuous)
Subject + had + been + [verb+ing]
>Nate had been working at the university forforty-five years before he retired
The Example of Grammar in Toefl Questions
Choose the best answer for each of the following questions. There is only one correct answer choice for each.
1. With the passing of time and the encroachment of people, the habitat of gorillas ______ to decrease.
b. Which continue
d. That it has continued
Answer : c. Continues (Because this is sentence to use simple present tense)
2. Despite being basically arboreal in nature, koalas ________ to inhabit a specific territory and range of some 30 square miles.
b .Which know
c. Are knowing
d. Are known
Answer : d. are known (Because this is sentence to use simple past tense)
<google search engine>
TOEFL listening section, tests the ability of a student, especially a non-native English speaker, to understand spoken English (accentuated) in educational setting. Listening is an important skill to understand the concepts and ideas. Only when the concepts are understood completely it becomes a lighter task to score in the listening section of TOEFL test. In order to develop the listening skills for TOEFL, there are certain set of listening strategies or steps. They are explained in detail given below.
Requirements for TOEFL Listening Strategy
Listening strategies for TOEFL aims at providing each and every minute detail that are required to respond to all the questions within the given time in this section. Responding to the questions in time is very important because, it will help TOEFL candidates to save time, which they might spend on, one specific part of the test section.
There are certain steps in strategies that would help in managing time in each part of listening test section (recordings). There are some basic requirements for listening skills which serves the steps in TOEFL listening strategies as detailed below:
- Basic Comprehension
When students listen to a recorded lecture or a conversation, they should understand the central or main idea in it. Then they should skim the recording for key points, important facts, purpose and the relevant details that connects the key points.
- Practical Understanding
It may also be called as “pragmatic understanding” where the meaning of a word should be taken, according to the context. Students are needed to find the intended meaning of the speaker i.e. from his point of view. A wide range of vocabulary is necessary for this process because, the recordings in listening test are usually from academic background. Practical understanding also becomes a must to find the purpose of a lecture or a conversation.
- Relate Ideas given in multiple information sources
Relating ideas is the final state where the key points and the important facts are compared to find the relationship between them. This method would initially lead to construct an argument. Then a string of supportive and non supportive elements are categorized and as a result the causes for the events are traced. This is where a student would end up identifying the conclusion which is expressed indirectly.
Inference is to find the implied conclusion in recordings from the author’s point of view. The conclusion might be implied or expressed indirectly anywhere in the passage.
These are the basic requirements necessary, in each part of the strategy of listening section, which consists of two recorded lectures and one long conversation. These fundamentals are to be followed, in the following few preparatory steps.
Strategies in Preparation
- Spoken English From Various Sources And Accents
There are variations between the accents of English. It is the best to listen to English from various sources like television, music, radio etc. And also it is good to listen to the native speakers of English with different pronunciation and dialect. By doing this students would be able to improve their listening skills and also they will get used to different kinds of accents. It will be helpful very much if they listen to academic passages or conversations.
- Making Notes
While listening to a recording, notes should be jot down. These notes would help you to remember the important points given by speaker. The reason is also that, during the test you will be given only one chance to listen to a passage. Note making will help you to remember the details and the clues effectively.
- Main Idea
The main idea of a passage should be identified in a recording, as a first task while taking notes. Main idea of a lecture is usually given in the introductory part. The other details would be given in the rest of a lecture. Once the main idea is found it becomes a lighter task to find the purpose of the speaker.
- Pointer Words, Important Facts And Relationship Between The Facts
The pointer words may be defined as signal words or clues, given by the speaker. These keywords should be collected along with important facts and events. This should be done in order to compare them and identify the relationship between them. In turn this would give you the cause of the events.
- Summary of Observation
Give a summary of the recording which was listened, using the notes that are taken down. During this process, only important facts, relevant details, main idea and the key facts are covered. This is a good time saving technique, to prevent going through the notes again and again.
- Building your Vocabulary
Above all it is also important to build a student’s vocabulary, to find the meaning of a word, according to the context of the speaker. Students should get familiar with the words which they consider as new ones and practice them in their everyday life.
The steps and the requirements in TOEFL strategies for listening section, which are elaborated above should be followed and practiced to manage time while taking up the test. The most important part in listening section is to concentrate on the subject of the speaker, and a student does not have to be distracted by the accent.
Charles Babbage yang lahir 26 Desember 1792 adalah seorang matematikawan dari Inggris yang pertama kali mengemukakan gagasan tentang komputer yang dapat diprogram. Sebagian dari mesin yang dikembangkannya kini dapat dilihat di Musium Sains London. Tahun 1991, dengan menggunakan rencana asli dari Babbage, sebuah mesin diferensial dikembangkan dan mesin ini dapat berfungsi secara sempurna, yang membuktikan bahwa gagasan Babbage tentang mesin ini memang dapat diimplementasikan.
Charles Babbage meninggal 18 Oktober 1871 pada umur 79 tahun, meninggalkan anak ; Benjamin Herschel Babbage (1815), Charles Whitmore Babbage (1817), Georgiana Whitmore Babbage (1818), Edward Stewart Babbage (1819), Francis Moore Babbage (1821), Dugald Bromheald Babbage (1823), Henry Prevost Babbage (1824), Alexander Forbes Babbage (1827), Timothy grant Babbage (1829). .:[Close][Klik 2x][Tutup]:. Pada masa itu, perhitungan dengan menggunakan tabel matematika sering mengalami kesalahan. Babbage ingin mengembangkan cara melakukan perhitungan secara mekanik, sehingga dapat mengurangi kesalahan perhitungan yang sering dilakukan oleh manusia.
Saat itu, Babbage mendapat inspirasi dari perkembangan mesin hitung yang dikerjakan oleh Wilhelm Schickard, Blaise Pascal, dan Gottfried Leibniz. Gagasan awal tentang mesin Babbage ditulis dalam bentuk surat yang ditulisnya kepada Masyarakat Astronomi Kerajaan berjudul “Note on the application of machinery to the computation of astronomical and mathematical tables” (“catatan mengenai penerapan mesin bagi penghitungan tabel astronomis dan matematis”) tertanggal 14 Juni 1822. – Tokoh Ilmuwan Penemu
(Charles Babbage) – http://www.charlesbabbage.net/ – Tokoh Ilmuwan Penemu - http://tokoh-ilmuwan-penemu.blogspot.com/2009/07/penemu-komputer-pertama.html